Virtual proctoring is proving very controversial. Proctoring is linked to the widespread concern that students are cheating in online exams, be it through the use of essay mills or the issue of proving the identity of the person undertaking an online assessment. The EU-funded TeSLA project—Adaptive Trust-based e-Assessment System for Learning has developed a proctoring system which combines the instruments developed by several institutions and companies. Biometric instruments are used to authenticate students, while the instruments that analyse text are employed in verifying authorship. Some textual analysis instruments like writing style (Forensic) analysis can also be used for authentication purposes.
There is a major concern that such approaches are intrusive of users’ privacy. There are also questions about the accuracy and efficacy of systems which are using AI as the basis for decision making. And clearly such systems provide a major barrier to many students with disabilities.