Introduction to feedback
Feedback is a common instrument in assessment procedures, but from the pedagogical point of view rarely been explored for eAssessment so far. There are developments in AI trying to improve eAssessment by CAT – computerised adaptive testing procedures (CAT), but those are mostly in use or requested for proctoring, which was mentioned before and will be referred to in another section. Also serious gaming includes electronic feedback but refers one-dimensional on narrow results based on a limited number of given criterias. AI is not capable of replacing human beings. To which extent this is desirable needs to be discussed differently. Awareness has to be raised that giving feedback is an important human feature which cannot be assumed as integratable in AI but might be considered more strongly if “writing the code” for AI or adaptive testing algorithms.
Beyond all theory, practicing feedback is rarely institutionalised in initial teachers training. During the last decades feedback was neither a part of the individual learning process at schools or universities. A summative assessment at the end of a learning unit or course was the standard and there was no interest in giving feedback on how a student was learning what, when and why. Also no feedback was given to teachers or lecturers about their quality of teaching by students.Until today there is no such quality assurance for trainers or teachers. Feedback as an integral part of pedagogy needs to be implemented by educational institutions or organisations as part of their guiding principles. In the Dual System or industry-wide training of VET many examples of feeding back in complex learning situations or even assessment as learning can be found in various forms. This can be traced back to the late 70´s or 80´s when action-oriented learning was declared as being the new approach to develop professional competencies and especially action-competencies in each professional field. The shift from teaching to learning took place in VET already and shifts currently to coaching and moderation of learning. Feedback during coaching and moderation is indispensable.